As usual, this article is written from my point of view and is limited to my current level of knowledge. Fight me in the comments.
The main purpose of a “Bash Bar” is to provide a replaceable, bolt on crush area for the inevitability of front/rear contact between cars. The aim of this is to absorb the impact on a part that can be quickly replaced, instead of tweaking the actual body of the car. In the event of an impact, a new bash bar can simply be bolted on or the old one can be repaired if needed.
Alternatively, bash bars have several other benefits. Increased air flow (theoretically), added jack points to the car, lowered weight, custom mounting brackets for body panels/lights, and added space in/around the bumper area.
Hobbyist vs Pro Bash Bar
Most general drifters replace the front bumper with a bash bar that mounts to the stock bumper. Many pro-am drivers and all pro drivers adhere to their rule books to cut off as much of the frame rail as possible to add a larger crash area. This gives more engine bay space and more area to crumple without transferring the impact to the main chassis. Many pro teams run 2 separate crash supports. One for the bumper, and one to replace the cut off frame rails. Doing this allows easier replacement and more crush area.
Most basic bash bars are a single bar that goes in place of the OEM bumper. The design above has the potential to puncture the tire in the event of an impact. A remedy to this would be to curve in the end piece so that the tire would hit a rounded edge of the bar instead of the corner.
Frequently, drift cars run a dual bar system. Dual bar systems are useful for oil pan and frame rail protection and a rigid mounting point for bumpers. The major down side is the added weight and complexity.
Years ago, when it was allowed, JR ran an aluminum bash bar on the front with a secondary steel frame behind it. While aluminum is more expensive, the weight savings was likely worth the effort. Formula Drift has since changed the rules so now all bash bars must be magnetic.
Another outlawed tactic was to use coilovers with weak springs to absorb the impact but spring back out to preserve the physical chassis body. While it added weight, it lowered the amount of body work and repair needed.
Samuel Hubinette for 2009 attempted to roll out a rollerblade wheel design to glide along walls. It didn’t make it into practice and Formula Drift may have outlawed this before its debut.
Here is another Japanese translation, mainly for my education. If you have requests, feel free to comment or email me to let me know. Parenthesis generally denote my notes or comments.
Title: Drift tire commentary. Test & Check
Red banner and Subtitle: Zenkova’s 2 types. How will this footwear stack up?
Article body (top left onto next page): Within the past several years’ tires, Zeknova stands out. This company’s tires are very useful for a main tire that can be used for competitions or regular driving. 2019 D1GP driver Daigo SAito is driving his Fat Five A90 supra using their RS606 tire. Even with this new car and development, the car has placed second and 4th in previous standings. The RS606 has much potential to go beyond this level. Formula Drift Japan Masadai (sp?) managed pretty well after a typhoon wet the track. The RS606 is a good high level/high grip tire while the Super Sport has a greater cost per lap ratio. There’s no doubt that Zeknova will be a tire to watch out for in the future.
Red Title Super Sport RS: Strongest tire for fun driving or competitions
Super Sport Subtext: Decent value to grip ratio. Good life for the cost per tire for drift practice. This tire also lasts very well for drift competitions. Tread wear was even across the tire sizes at 240.
Red Title RS606: Comp winning high grip tire.
RS606 Subtext: High speed high grip tire that can be used for competitions. This tire also has good tread to make it through water but also has good dry grip. Tread wear is 140/160/200/240 across the 4 subtypes. Even with full air, the large size responds very well.
Text Bubble: Pick a tire size based on your power level! The Super Sport can be used for comps or fun!
Caption: The RS606 is used by pro drivers for it’s high grip in D1 and FD. The Super Sport RS was picked by D1 judged for use in the series (note to self, clarify this). This tire has placed 6th in the top 16 frequently.
*For text body see 2 panels above
Green/White Text: New Drift Tengoku tire test mule!
Body: Wataru Mashisan (sp?) the school of drift champ and FD Japan driver and this year’s tournament champion. This S15 has been his general test car and competition car for a while. It is used to test both competition and general drift tires.
Black Box Text: Testing Rules – Tire pressure starts at 2.5kg/cm2 (~35psi) to get a feel for the car. On the second heat, pressure is lowered to 1.2kb/cm2 (~17psi) to test grip. The test car is the “MassBear” (????) S14 with a TD06-20G good for 400ps (395hp). Front tires are a Valino Pergea 08R with 235/40/18. Testing is done at Nikko about 1pm at 56.6 degrees (130F) road temp. This testing effected not only the tires, but the car and driver.
RS606 Heat 1 (top left): This tire was tested at great speeds. Even with the air so high, the side might not have done well (side bite?). Flooring it causes a feeling of side traction loss. It’s hard to stop the rear once it’s out so less air is likely better.
RS606 Heat 2: Just as we though, lowering the tire pressures gave more side grip. This felt much better. Even with 400ps, there still is some grip left in the tires. Although, these tires have a shorter life than the Super Sport RS tires. Even with this, it is still a very usable tire.
Super Sport Heat 1: This is way too much air for this tire. After 5 laps they were hard to catch and maintain in a drift. The overall balance really isn’t that good at this pressure when it comes to side grip. There’s still some ability left in the tire.
Super Sport Heat 2: This completely changed the tire but also eats through the tire faster. With partial acceleration, this helps this tire become a pro level tire [D1 light series]. This has a good amount of grip left in the tires.
Bottom Right Pic: Soukoukai tire – These are the tires after our 2 heats. Corners 1-6 and about 5 laps per heat overall.
Red Middle Text: The RS is an FD/D1 capable car while the Super Sport is great for practice and just having fun. Both are very good tires!
Under Left Graphic: Even with the high road temps, the RS606 would be a great battling tire for comps. In our second heat, the RS606 seemed like a very capable dry tire that wears very evenly.
The RS Super sport was pretty good even with high pressures and had very good life in them. At a soukoukai, these could go for a full day on 2 sets. With about 300ps, these would be a great cost per tire. I will be using these as my practice tire on my silvia.
Hopefully this is the first in a weekly series where I do my best to translate articles in Japanese to English. This is mainly for my education. If you have requests, feel free to comment or email me to let me know. Parenthesis generally denote my notes or comments. This article was tough to translate so I’m likely not 100% accurate or paraphrase.
Black Title: SR/RB/JZ Z33 transmission era presentation.
Bold Text: This readily domestically available transmission from (for?) the Tourer V can handle over 500 hp now has a drop in kit. The swap kit for the Z33 transmission to the SR/RB/JZ “big 3” is finally here.
Article on the left: Attacking the clutch. With 1 year of development by Miyaseimitsu for the SR and RB, this swap kit was precision machined. Taking into consideration the drive shaft differences, this north Kantou shop is one of the most trusted in the area.
That Miyaseimitsu company worked hard over that 1 year on more than 10 swaps for this transmission. Aiming for more than just strength and popularity. (next page) Anyone who has tried this 6 speed swap will rave about the big difference in shift feeling.
Picture caption: After swapping my turbo and 6 speed, I was surprised at the difference!
Picture story: After blowing his Chaser’s 5 speed, Satokun asked Wakamatsusan to help swap this transmission in over the summer. With a TD06-25G turbo, good for 450 horsepower, this new transmission helped to get and stay in the power band. And using the stock cross member (??) made him feel much better about the swap. Changing gears makes you just want to hop in and drive. With drifting, the rpms don’t drop the engine out of boost so this increases confidence.
With the suggested 4.1 diff ratio, Nikko circuit , Honshu, and Ebisu south course are doable, problem free. With the 5 speed, it was a 2 to 3 shift. Now with the 6 speed, it’s a 3 to 4 shift. The linear up and down shifting makes it easier to not miss a gear. The shortness of the gear selector took a bit to get used to but it wasn’t long.
Picture caption top: The age of the 6 speed is here! By amigo (why does it say amigo?) Wakamatsusan
Picture caption left: We have a full menu of drop in kits! By Miyaseimitsu Iwasakusan (I think that’s his name)
Text: Amigo Wakamatsusan swapped an R34 trans into his 180sx [SR20XGTRS turbo for 400hp] practice car. “For competitions, you’d want to swap out several final drives but in reality that isn’t often possible. With the 6 speed and a 4.3 diff ratio, most of Kantou’s courses are doable. Nikko, Honshu, Mobara, Ebisu south, and Link are all no problem. Maze might also be doable.” says Wakamatsusan.
This time, Miyaseimitsu set its sights on the 1JZ to swap the TourerV into. Because the manufacturers are the same for the RB/SR, up until now, the drive shaft splines and clutch all matched up. Matching the transmission up to a 1JZ has many more hurdles.
With that Miyaseimitsu looked at an ORC product to help with the pilot bearing in the crankshaft. ORC also provided a proper clutch setup to match the splines of the 6 speed transmission. (No idea what ORC is)
It seems like the JZA80 supra’s getrag transmission is no longer receiving new product support (IE no longer being produced). On the other hand, the Z33 transmission is available for $2,000 and can take more power than the R154 transmission. Miyaseimitsu’s swap kit is $3,000, the dual clutch kit can be found for $600, and a used drive shaft can be found for $100. The grand total for the swap can be about $7,000.
In comparison to the R154, this gives better rear ratio options and a worry free 6 speed transmission. For anyone thinking of a getrag swap, this would be worth thinking about instead.
Top Stats: transmission gear ratios
Bottom stats: Transmission new/used prices (new top, used bottom).
Sidebar Under Trans: Z33/R34 trans. For Silvia/skyline TourerV swaps, in comparison, the R154 has a larger and heavier case. Even the gears are wider apart. Miyaseimitsu says this trans can handle up to 800hp. You can still get them new too. Although be weary of used transmissions having gear (shifting?) issues. Although, for S13s/S14s will need separate speed sensor inputs for the speedometer.
Bottom Graphic: DIY product for swapping this transmission trouble free. Price of trans swap kit, $3,000. Contents: trans case, bell housing. Core swap available. Drive shaft (core swap available). Bell housing adapter. Trans cross member. Shift linkage. Pilot bearing. *Look for the stamp on your JZ engine (no idea what this means).
Bottom Left Graphic: Specialty for the JZ trans swap. Depending on the stamp or type of car, a different shifter cage is necessary. This comes with the $3,000 kit and makes things very simple to swap in.
1 JZ’s clutch cover (bell housing) as is! Different manufacturers transmissions line up with a custom pilot bearing. ORC’s clutch and flywheel match with the transmission’s splines and input shaft. This allows for a trouble free swap.
2 Attach it with an adapter! With the R154’s bellhousing and slave cylinder, there’s no need to swap anything else out. Simply cut the bell housing off the new transmission and use the supplied adapter Miyaseimitsu supplies for an easy swap.
3 It even comes with a trans brace! Since you can’t use the Z33’s transmission mount, this kit comes with a custom brace. The brace also has a provision for exhaust hangers.
4 First class drive shaft! With a different length transmission, a custom drive shaft is necessary. (No idea on the second sentence. Single piece drive shaft maybe?)
5 The TourerV’s drive tunnel is roomier than the Silvia’s but this kit still keeps the transmission above the exhaust.
4.1 Final Drive. With the displacement, torque, and rev limit, the silvia’s wide ranged 4.10 differential ratio is likely best. These were tested at Nikko, Ebisu south with third and 4th gears. Honshu was perfectly in 3rd gear.
Fitting the shifter requires a little trimming on the front drive tunnel. Regardless, the shifter sits roughly in the same spot as factory. Some massaging of the drive tunnel is still needed to fit properly.
1/2 Fixing the Release Bearing. Miyaseimitsu’s silvia kit strives to maintain the factory clutch feel and release bearing. This means that adapters aren’t necessary and everything bolts on without issue. Even the center (drive shaft?) remains stock
3 The TourerV specific transmission bracket can be used. It even has a hanger for the exhaust.
4 Trans tunnel is thinner than(in?) the TourerV. The body’s trans tunnel is narrower but it can be hammered in without the need to cut. Different engine and trans mounts might cause issues with the transmission height so be careful when doing this swap.
5 The R34 transmission is pretty big so its hard to fit and not hang out below the car’s body. This setup has been tested at Ebisu south’s “jump”
For Kantou drifting, 4.3 final gear is best! [Nikkou, Honshu, Mobara, Ebisu south, Link, and Maze are workable but Meihan probably isn’t doable.] Say wakamatsusan. If you wanted to complete up to the hairpin, you might need up to a 4.9.
The shifter hole needs no modifications and the shifter lines up perfectly.
Right side: New R34 trans ~$2,000 Z33 drive shaft and stock SR bellhousing $300 Miyaseimitsu kit $3,000 Labor ~$300 Total ~$6,100 Be careful of used parts. Make sure to specify and ensure your parts are from/for the right cars before ordering. This kit may also be used for the RB engine in the skyline (??)
This article will go into the very basics of how CAN Bus works in the automotive world. Things like transmission arbitration and bits/bytes are beyond the scope of what’s necessary for a basic understanding CAN Bus systems. There’s also a TON of other uses for Controller Area Network (CAN) systems, but this is an automotive blog (among other things).
The Old Way
Older analog technology required a physical wire between every sensor and every recipient. The coolant sensor from the engine went to the ECU and the ECU had a separate output to read the temps to the cluster panel. Splitting a sensor between multiple outputs wasn’t easily possible (EG tapping the stock coolant sensor to run an aftermarket gauge). Every new electronic sensor/gauge/output/input had to have a single wire or more linked from that module to its destination. Each new element added complexity and weight.
Modern CAN Bus
Modern day CAN Bus systems use 2 wires to communicate between modules on a “bus”. A bus is a system of modules all joined together using interconnected wiring. In the example above, there are 2 buses. One for the light modules and another for the engine and stability control system. Modern cars can have several buses for various sub systems. For example, the lighting module doesn’t need to know what the engine’s RPM is so there isn’t a need to run the extra wiring. A simple real world example of a bus system would be a computer’s USB (Universal Serial Bus) hub. Many devices can be connected to a computer through a single cable.
Why Use a Bus?
As cars get more complicated and filled with electronics, a CAN Bus type solution is necessary to keep cost/weight/failure points/etc to a minimum. Less wiring inside of a car can only be a good thing. For example, a car could have CAN Bus modules in each seat to tell if they are buckled, tensioned properly, occupied, reclined, and can be told to turn on the seat heaters/coolers, all with 2 wires.
Why Should I Care?
Because we can hack it! Why buy expensive aftermarket gauges when an android tablet can read out all of the engine’s vitals? CAN Bus information can also be used to diagnose issues beyond normal OBD2 codes that the factory didn’t expose. There are even tools to push commands to CAN Bus modules. Right now this type of hacking seems to be in its infancy, but in the future, it’s very possible to reverse engineer entire CAN Bus systems easily and manipulate any module or even add/remove them. For example, CAN hacking could be used to interface motor swaps with the factory cluster and body buses, eliminating the need to perform major rewiring jobs.
Much like the swap from carbs to EFI, CAN Bus systems are now prevalent in every current generation car. As a tuner or tinkerer of cars, it is quickly becoming a necessity to learn to use these systems and understand how they work. At the very least, they are useful for diagnostics. At its best, it is a new opportunity for tuning and enhancing vehicles far beyond what was possible in the past.
As usual this is my personal opinion based on over 10 years of drifting and teaching various people with various setups. This article assumes the vehicle is reasonably well setup (locking diff, not blown shocks, properly sized/pressurized tires, decent alignment, etc). With that baseline, a driver should be able to move through these levels at varying speeds. Although, the order in which the inner milestones are accomplished can vary greatly.
Level 1(子): Donuts and Figure 8s
The basics of drifting is learning to start and maintain oversteer. The progression generally starts with learning how to break traction, then maintain the loss of traction, and finally how to control/modulate it.
The progression is generally:
Full lock steering wheel (from a stand still) donuts while holding the wheel at lock
Learning to modulate throttle to keep it going
Full lock donuts (from a stand still) and then modulating steering to tighten and loosen the donut radius
Learning steering inputs
Donut with a running start (clutch kick or ebrake)
Learning steering on initiation
Learning weight transfer from side to side
Learning steering in transition
Level 2(小): Linking Corners
Building upon the general concepts, the next steps are to gain new skills and polish what has already been learned.
These include (but are not limited to):
Hand brake, power over, clutch kick, etc
Increasing radius corners
Hand brake extensions
Multiple clutch kicks (or more power)
Decreasing radius corners
Hand brake pull
Banks and other cambered corners
Left foot braking
Multiple hand brake pulls
Lots of techniques
Hand brake work
Multiple clutch kicks
Transitions between corners in general
Steering technique mid transition
Throttle inputs for various situations in transition
Level 3(中): Linking Courses
Once the technique tool bag is full, using all of them to reliably complete an entire course is the next goal. This level is mainly polishing Level 2 skills to the point where they can be reliably performed in succession with minimal corrections. Line work generally isn’t polished. The pinnacle of this is repeatably completing the course with no spins and no straightening.
Level 4(大): Tandem/Competitions
After courses can be linked reliably, the next step is to minimize errors and maximize speed/line/angle throughout the course. Competency can be attained by driving with other drivers and mimicking their techniques and lines. Also by attending competitions.
In competition. Judges will designate the preferred line
The ability to complete the course quickly or catch up to another driver
“running away” from the following driver
Maximize angle without necessarily sacrificing speed
Ability to get close to the lead driver without hitting them
When a driver finally steps up to tandem driving, it’s very intimidating. Learning how to lead and follow has much higher risks than regular solo runs. As a result, an introduction to the prestigious club of tandem drivers can ease the transition. Here is a few of the generally unwritten rules of tandem driving. (also see: Lone Star Drift’s Video for most of these rules in video format).
When two drivers meet up in a tandem line, the second driver generally holds up 2 fingers. This denotes a request to tandem with the two cars:
From there, the other driver will give a thumbs up or down. If it’s a thumbs up, the driver will then point at themselves then hold up a 1 or a 2. 1 meaning they lead, 2 meaning they will follow. From there, the first driver will thumbs up or down.
This interaction confirms how many drivers and who will be in what position. The drivers will then hold up the 2 fingers to tell the starting line corner worker that they are going to tandem. The run then proceeds normally.
Multi Car Tandems
When a track allows multi car tandems, things get a bit more difficult. A third driver can drive up next to the first two drivers and hold up three fingers.
The drivers will then point to themselves or others and hold up fingers for which position each person will be in and confirm/change how many drivers are in the group. Again, they will communicate this to the starting line corner worker. Disagreement (EG: no, we are just gonna go two) is done with a neck side to side hand gesture:
The corner worker will then hold up the number of drivers in that run. This conveys to the drivers how many people will be in the run and allow disagreement if necessary. This can continue for however many drivers there are.
Drift Nirvana Specific
Shenandoah bridge course and Jefferson south course have long and short courses. Asking the other driver which they prefer is done by a short or long gesture with hands to denote short or long respectively
Unless there’s a reason, rotate who leads and follows
As a lead(ing) car, when spinning out or having issues, try to get out of the way (off course if necessary). Preferably on the inside of the corner
When spinning, if getting off course or out of the way isn’t possible, stay still so that other cars can predictably get around
Passing is generally frowned upon
The corner worker has the final say in how many drivers are in a tandem group
Every driver is responsible for their own car and their own damage
When swapping motors, the factory DME is no longer receiving signals. As a result, the cluster panel won’t show rpms, coolant temps, and lights like the oil pressure dummy light and the CEL. The E46 chassis also uses a ton of can bus connections between modules to double check VINs and pass data for other modules to use. Despite having can bus technology, the cluster panel and other modules still use analog/pwm signals for various instruments. For instance, the speedometer is a pwm signal from the ASC/DSC module. With my M3 rear end swap, this sensor no longer communicates with the ASC/DSC system so the cluster doesn’t receive that signal. But also, the can bus signal gets a ASC/DSC not working dummy light command from that module to the cluster.
To maintain most of the lights and VIN checks, I kept my factory DME installed but severed the can bus connection to the DME to the cluster. I don’t use the ASC/DSC system so the arduino uno just sends a signal to the cluster that it’s as ok as it can be.
I still have my “carduino” freematics module that plugs into the factory LS2 GTO PCM via the OBD2 port using an ELM327 chip. The ELM327 is just a generic chip used in most off the shelf OBD2 autozone/advanced auto parts stores to connect to most OBD2 systems. This reads things like coolant temp and RPM that is then fed to the arduino uno to send to the cluster. The carduino also has a GPS module to replace the speed input to the cluster via an analog output as well.
Once things start working, I think the cluster can bus has access to things like brake pressure and steering angle that I can send back to the carduino to log in the SD card. Having 2 arduinos isn’t really necessary but giving the cluster its own unit makes sense. Also it saves me time of mashing together all the components into one unit. The general idea is simple, but the execution has some nuances and isn’t always as straight forward as the diagram suggests.
There isn’t a huge amount to update from a technology perspective but there is much worth talking about. I did my best to read in the rpm readings from the PCM supplied wire but I just couldn’t figure out how to receive the PWM signal properly. Without an oscilloscope, I’m basically flying blind. I would love to figure it out one day but it isn’t super necessary.
From here, I want to use my old carduino datalogger to feed in speed/rpm/temps into the cluster arduino as a slave. The basic serial/uart connection should be good enough to communicate between the two. I did find some bluetooth uart solutions but I don’t think it’s necessary. The hope is to make the carduino a removable unit that sits around my rear view mirror and the cluster arduino permanently sits behind the cluster.
The carduino will use its ELM327 and pull rpm and coolant temps from the PCM via the OBD2 interface (It will likely be logging rpm/clt/iat/throttle only). It will also gather speed from the GPS module. All of this data will be sent via a 5 character “commands” to the slave/cluster arduino. Begin and end bits, an identifier, and 2 characters for the data. I’ll post more as the code gets developed.
This functionality should be basically the same as the Thaniel module. I hope to eventually incorporate things like the IAT Into the MPG gauge. And maybe hooking up the CEL so it actually works. I can also turn on and off warning lights for my own purposes in lieu of their factory uses. I don’t know what I would use them for, but it sounds interesting.
Sorry, no cool graphics today. I hope to have something soon.
Turns out the e46 cluster won’t tween between values. It just shakes between the two values. So I severed the can bus connection from the chassis and made sure important features still worked. It turns out the e46 cluster is a combination of can bus, k bus, and analog inputs. The can bus inputs seem to only be a direct DME input. Maybe some ASC/DSC.
At this point, the tachometer works and the general can system has been setup. By reading this blog, I found out that the speedometer is actually a 12v output from the cluster that can be conditionally grounded to output a proper speed. A 2N2222 transistor with a 1k inline resistor in cahoots with the arduino tone operation go the speedometer working correctly.
The can bus managed to get most of the nasty lights out. I know the seat belt is done via K bus but I’m not sure about the red brake light. That’s likely the parking brake analog input. Also, the temp gauge is centered as a proof of concept. I’m not sure I will actually hook it up.
Next steps are to read rpm inputs from the LS PCM’s output and probably the start of the arduino to arduino communications to gather ELM and GPS data to feed to the cluster.
Been over a year since my last post. I have the LS2 installed in my E46 and the basics are in and running. The current issue is that the cluster rpm/speedo/temp gauge are all disabled since the stock BMW DME is installed but not hooked up to an engine. I decided to leave the DME in to maintain as much functionality as possible. The speedometer is normally read by the left rear wheel speed sensor but I did an M3 E46 rear swap and the sensor is different.
Looking around the internet lead me to the Thaniel module (facebook page is “can bus module”). After talking with them, the module won’t fit my needs. It uses an ELM327 to connect to the LS PCM and I need that for my carduino for data logging. Also, my factory DME is still giving the cluster signals so they will be fighting each other.
Of course this lead me to creating my own ardunio can bus module. I’m using an arduino uno and the sparkfun can bus board. Like every other can bus arduino module, it uses an MCP2515 on SPI. The sparkfun library didn’t work with any of my tests so I eventually found this sample code that has a generic MCP2515 “library”.
The LS1 PCM has a 5v output for RPM signal that I’m planning to feed into the arduino, then to the cluster can bus. The stock DME should be sending conflicting data so I’m hoping the cluster just tweens between the two values. So 3,000 rpms might show up as 1,500 rpms on the cluster. Otherwise, I have to sever the can bus from the DME to the cluster and troubleshoot what is lost from not having that connection.
Otherwise, the speedometer can be done via GPS. Theoretically, the coolant temp can be done through a 5v sensor or fed from my carduino. Regardless, I plan to run an aftermarket gauge to get a number. The stock coolant gauge is pretty vague.